Turkey in Brief

Turkey in Brief

Fall in Love Welcome to Turkey, a country that spans two continents and which for over ten thousand years has been the home of great cultures and civilisations of the world. Here you can enjoy the pleasures of east and west, old and new. Turkey is a land of great contrasts. It honours and preserves the legacy of its past while looking forward to its modern future. Turkey’s variety never ceases to amaze its visitors. Here you can see landscapes of incredible natural beauty, palaces, sites of great antiquity, towns and villages with lovely examples of architecture from Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman times. In sharp contrast it boasts over eight thousand kilometres of coastline, innumerable gorgeous beaches and modern holiday resorts. Truly, every taste is catered for.
Once you have visited Turkey, sampled the delicious food and marvellous local wines and drinks, enjoyed the friendliness and hospitality of the people you are sure to want to return again and again, each time making new discoveries and new friends.   Discover Turkey It’s been said that Turkey is an open air Museum. Almost every five miles you travel you are sure to find relics left behind after the numerous civilisations that passed through this Peninsula. Some, of course, are more interesting than others. 
Your resort is a great base from which to visit the many famous landmarks and all are only a day trip away. Here some of the world’s most amazing natural sites are literally on your doorstep. In order for you to get out and about during your holiday Peninsula Tours have got together with the true experts, the Turkish Board of Tourism and compiled a wonderful tour programme especially for you. If you wish to do something out of the ordinary, or visit somewhere not included in our programme plase ask your Representative who will be delighted to adsive and assist you in any way possible.                                   
The following pages reveal some of the magical things that Turkey has to offer you and that will, without doubt, make this the finest holiday that you will ever experience. Turkish Origins Any visitor to Turkey will notice that the Turks are racially very mixed. They are even more mixed than the British. Some Turks are olive-skinned with black hair and brown eyes, others are blonde. Most Turks think of themselves as Europeans rather than Asians. It has been said that there may have been racial kinship with the Hungarians and the Finns, both of whom also came originally from tne East.
Basically Turks are a Turanian people whose original homeland was in central Asia. Towards the fourth century AD, because of climatic and geographical conditions, large scale of migrations of Turkish people travelled westward of Asia and finally arrived to Asia Minor (Anatolia) which was very quite, rich for pasture-land and suitable for stepped culture and nomadic life-style. Through the century they mixed and intermarried with descendent of hittites such as Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Lycians, cappadocians, ect. Finally Anatolia became a homeland for Turks, forever.
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Turkey in Brief
Atatürk Atatürk was born in Thessaloniki (Northern Greece) and was named Mustafa. Whilst at school, he gained the name Kemal as he was regarded as an excellent pupilKemal means excellence. This name stuck even through First World War until the day he died. He became an important coordinator of the defence of Turkey during the first World War and of the Battle of Gallipoli against the Anzacs (Colonial Forces). He was regarded as an impulsive man, however, the skills and chances he took helped to build the Turkey of today. When the War ended, he then led a revolution and again his excellence and daring, disregarding his own safety, led to the rule of Turkey and to set new standards in the Turkish way of life. It can be said that Atatürk single-handedly changed the whole future of this country, bringing it in line with its Western neighbours.
Today there is a law in Turkey which says that no one is to insult Atatürk and is actually regarded as a serious crime against the Turkish People.
Turkey in the Milenium Today’s Turkey is very different to that of the olden days. The parliamentary system was introduced more than a century ago. Following the Turkish Revolution at the end of World War I reforms to achieve social and institutional change were initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the revolutionary leader and first President of the Republic of Turkey. Secularism and the protection of democratic rights were perhaps the most important of these reforms. He abolished all Persian and Arabic words, declared Islam a religion and not a lifestyle and banned the fez.
One of the proudest achievements of the Republic was the establishment of women’s rights. Since Atatürks reforms, womens’s role in social, political and economic life has expanded dramatically. Since the early days of the Republic well-educated women, particularly in the cities, have taken active roles in the professions, goverments and business.
Starting with the 1950’s highway programme and  culminating with the 80’s free market reforms, unbridled transformation of the landscape has taken place. The country is electrified with the vitality of a young population, ready to participate in a booming economy with endless possibilities. The young women of Turkey today no longer spend their time learning how to cook and clean they are now more interested in the latest fashions and the latest model in Levi’s!
The desire of Turks to be understood and liked, to communicate and learn about people from other lands will be very evident during your visit here. Interpret their enthusiasm to interact with you with this in mind. They would rather make long-time acquaintances, hang-out together, exchange cards, letters and gifts than receive “fair payment” or large tips for help rendered.
Wherever you go here in Turkey you will always be made to feel welcome.
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Turkey in Statistics Country name: Republic of Turkey Goverment type: Republican parliamentary democracy Capital: Ankara Administrative divisions: 81 provinces Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire) Geographic coordinates: 32° 42° N, 25° 44° E Area total: 780,580 sq km. Land boundaries: 2,627 km. Border countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Syria. Coastline: 7,200 km. Temperate: hot, dry summer with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior. Highest point: Mount Agri 5,166 mt. Population : 77.695.904 (2015 est.)                           0 - 14 years : 24,27 %                          15 - 64 years : 67,70 %                          65 years and over : 7.9 % Population growth rate : 1.34% (2014 est) Life expectancy at birth : 73,60 years Nationality: Turkish Religions: Muslim 99%, others 1% Language: Turkish Currency: TL (Turkish Lira) Purchasing power parity : $1.167 trillion (2013 est.) real growth rate: 3.8% (2013 est.) Per capita Purchasing power parity : $ 10.822 (2013) Inflation rate (consumer prices) : 7,91% (2015) Railways: 12,000 km (2011) Highways: 370,276 km. (2,119 km motorway) (2011) Airports: 52 (2014) Telephones: in addition 70 Million celluar telephone subscribers 25,4 million internet) Local Women There is hardly any other topic where the psychological distance between nations is more pronounced than the status of women. Since the 19th century, European Art, literature and popular culture have depicted eastern women as docile, submissive creatures, clad in black sheets when not dancing before their masters in exotic transparent silks. Although such perceptions were one time based on some reality, the cliche has of
ten remained. Following the Turkish Revolution at the end of World War 1, reforms to achieve fundamental and broad-based social and institutional change were initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
One of the proudest achievements of the Republic was the establishment of women’s rights in the new social order. The Turkish woman has been exalted symbolically throughout history as the mother figure and pillar of the family. Since Atatürk’s reforms, women’s role in social, political and economic life has expanded dramatically. Since the early days of the Republic, well-educated women, particularly in the cities, have taken on active roles in the professions, government and business. In fact, women in Turkey won the right to vote well before many of their European  counterparts. Local Children Education is regarded as the chief means to social advancement and Turkish people call it the gateway to civilisation.
Children start school at the age of six. In addition to basic knowledge, Turkish Primary schools also teach simple agriculture and technical information.
Having completed the compulsary eight year education there is then the option of studying for a further four years at Grammer School or Lycee as it’s called in Turkish.
Turkey in Brief
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The young boys are wild about soccer and budding players can be seen kicking the ball around the streets at all hours.
Otherwise the young generation of the big towns and cities have the same interests as their western counterparts, be it computer games, mobile phones or spending weekends hanging around their local fast food restaurant!
The Five Pillars of Islam Five requirements of the Islamic Religion are: 1. One must state with full understanding and  acceptance that there is only one God and Mohammed is his last prophet. 2. One must pray five times a day at particular intervals. 3. One must observe Ramazan, the month of Fasting, 
during which one neither eats, drinks nor smokes from sunrise to sunset. 4. One must give charity. 5. Once in ones life, one must if possible, make a  Pilgrimage to MECCA.